Black History 365 – First African American invited to dine at the White House

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Booker T. Washington: 1901 – First African American invited to dine at the White House 1940 – First African American to be portrayed on a U.S. postage stamp

Booker T. Washington:
1901 – First African American invited to dine at the White House
1940 – First African American to be portrayed on a U.S. postage stamp

In 2016 for my Black History 365 series, I explore the obvious and not so obvious parts of American history that those called Black have taken part in. The things that we (Black people) have done other than be stolen from our homeland and made forced labor in a land foreign to us. I’m going to start this series by looking up the first time someone African-American did something and broke the color barrier in that activity or field. I’ll be starting with Wikipedia and working my way out:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_African-American_firsts

I will be learning a lot of this as I go since I am a product of the standardized Euro/Anglo/Caucasian leaning public school system. I hope you enjoy learning with me. I’ll be going down the list chronologically as it appears in the Wikipedia article.

If you have any other sources or additional information for this topic, please share in the comments. I also welcome any and all comments and discussion. Thanks for reading!

For today’s entry:

Booker T. Washington:
1901 – First African American invited to dine at the White House
1940 – First African American to be portrayed on a U.S. postage stamp

From Wikipedia:

Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an African-American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community.

Washington was from the last generation of black American leaders born into slavery and became the leading voice of the former slaves and their descendants. They were newly oppressed in the South by disenfranchisement and the Jim Crow discriminatory laws enacted in the post-Reconstruction Southern states in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

His base was the Tuskegee Institute, a historically black college in Alabama. As lynchings in the South reached a peak in 1895, Washington gave a speech, known as the “Atlanta compromise,” which brought him national fame. He called for black progress through education and entrepreneurship, rather than trying to challenge directly the Jim Crowsegregation and the disenfranchisement of black voters in the South. Washington mobilized a nationwide coalition of middle-class blacks, church leaders, and white philanthropists and politicians, with a long-term goal of building the community’s economic strength and pride by a focus on self-help and schooling. But, secretly, he also supported court challenges to segregation and passed on funds raised for this purpose. Black militants in the North, led by W. E. B. Du Bois, at first supported the Atlanta compromise but after 1909, they set up the NAACP to work for political change. They tried with limited success to challenge Washington’s political machine for leadership in the black community but also built wider networks among white allies in the North. Decades after Washington’s death in 1915, the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s took a more active and militant approach, which was also based on new grassroots organizations based in the South, such as CORE, SNCC and SCLC.

Booker T. Washington mastered the nuances of the political arena in the late 19th century, which enabled him to manipulate the media, raise money, strategize, network, pressure, reward friends and distribute funds while punishing those who opposed his plans for uplifting blacks. His long-term goal was to end the disenfranchisement of the vast majority of African Americans, who still lived in the South.

(For MUCH more information, read the full Wikipedia article)

wikipedia Primary sources

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Black History 365 – First Black mathematics graduate student

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1887 - - FirstBlack mathematics graduate student, Kelly Miller

1887 – – First Black mathematics graduate student, Kelly Miller

In 2016 for my Black History 365 series, I explore the obvious and not so obvious parts of American history that those called Black have taken part in. The things that we (Black people) have done other than be stolen from our homeland and made forced labor in a land foreign to us. I’m going to start this series by looking up the first time someone African-American did something and broke the color barrier in that activity or field. I’ll be starting with Wikipedia and working my way out:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_African-American_firsts

I will be learning a lot of this as I go since I am a product of the standardized Euro/Anglo/Caucasian leaning public school system. I hope you enjoy learning with me. I’ll be going down the list chronologically as it appears in the Wikipedia article.

If you have any other sources or additional information for this topic, please share in the comments. I also welcome any and all comments and discussion. Thanks for reading!

For today’s entry:

1887: First Black mathematics graduate student, Kelly Miller

From BlackPast.org

Kelly Miller, mathematician, intellectual, and political activist, was born on July 23, 1863 in Winnsboro, South Carolina to Kelly and Elizabeth Miller. Like many African Americans who took advantage of increased educational opportunities after the civil war, Miller attended Howard University in Washington, D.C. He earned a B.A. in 1886.  While at Howard he served as a clerk in the US Pensions Office.

In 1887 Miller became the first graduate student at Johns Hopkins University where he studied mathematics and physics. An increase in tuition forced Miller to leave Johns Hopkins in 1889 without completing his graduate work.  He continued his studies as a student of Captain Edgar Frisby, an English mathematician at the US Naval Observatory and briefly taught mathematics at M Street High School in Washington before being hired by Howard University as a professor of mathematics.  Miller taught mathematics at Howard for the next five years.   He also enrolled in Howard University for graduate study, earning an  M.A. in 1901 and an LL.B from Howard University Law School in 1903.  In 1894, Miller married Annie May Butler and the couple had five children named Newton, Paul, Irene, May, and Kelly Jr.  Three years later, in 1897, he helped found the first organization for black intellectuals known as the American Negro Academy.

Like other turn of the twentieth century black intellectuals, Miller believed that the developing social sciences would be useful in assessing the experiences of black Americans and in charting a course for their future advancement.  He helped organize Howard’s sociology department during the 1890s and served as a professor of sociology from 1895 to 1934.  Miller’s interest in the plight of African Americans encouraged him to assist W.E.B. DuBois in editing the Crisis, the magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and to craft numerous lectures and pamphlets that examined the racial experiences of black Americans. His thoughts and ideas appeared in weekly columns that were published in more than 100 newspapers in the 1920s and 1930s and appeared in several books including Race Adjustment (1908), Out of the House of Bondage (1914), and The Everlasting Stain (1924).

In addition to his duties as an educator and researcher, Miller served as dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Howard from 1907 to 1918.  After spending over fifty years at Howard University as a student, teacher, and administrator, Miller retired from Howard in 1931. He died in Washington, D.C. in 1939.

Sources:
Dr. Scott W. Williams, “Kelly Miller,” Mathematics of the African Diaspora, http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/special/miller_kelley.html (Accessed September 7, 2010); Carter G. Woodson, “Kelly Miller,” Journal of Negro History 25 (January, 1940): 126-138; August Meier, “The Racial and Educational Philosophy of Kelly Miller, 1895-1915,” Journal of Negro Education 29 (July, 1960): 121-27; William M. Banks, Black Intellectuals: Race and Responsibility in American Life (New York: W.W. Norton & Company), 71-72, 96, 283-284.

– See more at: http://www.blackpast.org/aah/miller-kelly-1863-1939#sthash.7vjRz7kA.dpuf

Black History 365 – First African-American midshipman admitted to the United States Naval Academy

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(No image available for John H. Conyers)

(No image available for John H. Conyers)

In 2016 for my Black History 365 series, I explore the obvious and not so obvious parts of American history that those called Black have taken part in. The things that we (Black people) have done other than be stolen from our homeland and made forced labor in a land foreign to us. I’m going to start this series by looking up the first time someone African-American did something and broke the color barrier in that activity or field. I’ll be starting with Wikipedia and working my way out:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_African-American_firsts

I will be learning a lot of this as I go since I am a product of the standardized Euro/Anglo/Caucasian leaning public school system. I hope you enjoy learning with me. I’ll be going down the list chronologically as it appears in the Wikipedia article.

If you have any other sources or additional information for this topic, please share in the comments. I also welcome any and all comments and discussion. Thanks for reading!

For today’s entry:

1872: First African-American midshipman admitted to the United States Naval Academy: John H. Conyers (nominated by Robert B. Elliott of South Carolina)

From Wikipedia:

James Henry Conyers (October 24, 1855 – November 29, 1935) of South Carolina was the first black person admitted to the United States Naval Academy on September 21, 1872.

In 1872, the fifteen year old James Conyers was nominated for admission to the Naval Academy by South Carolina congressman Robert B. Elliott. After successfully completing “competitive district examinations after [his nomination as a midshipman] and passing the final test examinations at Annapolis,”, Conyers received his appointment as a “cadet-midshipman” and was sworn in on September 24, 1872. Contemporary newspapers noted favorably on Conyers, describing him as having a “complexion of about brown coffee color, with the usual curly hair of his race, and stands five feet three inches tall.”

From the beginning, Conyers met with difficulty, being subjected to all manner of hazing by his fellow midshipmen. He was cursed at, spat upon and physically manhandled. Some of his classmates even attempted to drown him. In the fall of 1872, Conyers was marching when he was kicked and punched by several otherCadets, among them the Academy’s boxing champion George Goodfellow.

News of the incident and the constant hazing experienced by Conyers leaked to the newspapers, and a three-man board was convened to investigate the attacks. Goodfellow denied any wrongdoing and Conyers claimed he could not identify any of his attackers. The board nonetheless concluded that “His persecutors are left then without any excuse or palliation except the inadmissible one of prejudice.” To give Conyers a fair chance at succeeding on his own merits, they believed strong measures should be taken. In the end Goodfellow and two others were dismissed from the Academy. The abuse continued in more subtle forms however, and his grades suffered. After surviving another hazing incident where nine midshipmen (including Andrew Summers Rowan) were subsequently dismissed from the Naval Academy due to their involvement, Conyers finally resigned in October 1873

~~~~~~~~~~

Wikipedia References

  1. Harley, Sharon (1996). The timetables of African-American history: a chronology of the most important people and events in African-American history. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780684815787. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Standard Certificate of Death, State of Carolina, Bureau of Vital Statistics, Registered no. 351291, File no. 16364 for James H. Conyers, dated November 29, 1935, Charleston, S.C. Ancestry.com. South Carolina, Death Records, 1821-1961 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2008.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Schneller, Robert John (2005). Breaking the color barrier: the U.S. Naval Academy’s first Black midshipmen and the struggle for racial equality. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-4013-2. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  4. [Henry E. Baker,] “Naming of Holley Was Not to Pay Campaign Promises; Putting Record straight; Former Cadet H. E. Baker, States That Three Colored Boys Entered The Academy And Four Others Were Nominated,” (New York) Age, April 8, 1922, 1
  5. Crane, Michael A. (2004). A fistful of thorns: Doc Holliday and Kate Elder 1880. Klamath Falls, OR: Boot Hill Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-9745914-0-7. Retrieved 27 May2013.
  6. Clare, Rod (July 2005). “Review of Schneller, Robert J., Jr., Breaking the Color Barrier: The U.S. Naval Academy’s First Black Midshipmen and the Struggle for Racial Equality”. H-War, H-Net Reviews. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  7. “Ancestry.com. Charleston, South Carolina, Marriage Records, 1877-1887 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007.
  8. 1900 Federal Census for the City and County of Charleston, South Carolina [Precinct 2, Charleston City, Charleston County Enumeration District 90, Sheet 10-A, Lines 44-51]
  9.  Luce, Stephen B. (1868) SEAMANSHIP: Compiled from Various Authorities, and Illustrated with Numerous Original and Select Designs, for the Use of the United States Naval Academy. NY: D. van Nostrand, Fourth Edition
  10. https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/21802761_seamanship-signed-by-1st-black-midshipman

Black History 365 – First African American to vote in an election under the 15th Amendment

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First African American to vote in an election under the 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting voting rights regardless of race: Thomas Mundy Peterson

Thomas Mundy Peterson

 

In 2016 for my Black History 365 series, I explore the obvious and not so obvious parts of American history that those called Black have taken part in. The things that we (Black people) have done other than be stolen from our homeland and made forced labor in a land foreign to us. I’m going to start this series by looking up the first time someone African-American did something and broke the color barrier in that activity or field. I’ll be starting with Wikipedia and working my way out:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_African-American_firsts

I will be learning a lot of this as I go since I am a product of the standardized Euro/Anglo/Caucasian leaning public school system. I hope you enjoy learning with me. I’ll be going down the list chronologically as it appears in the Wikipedia article.

If you have any other sources or additional information for this topic, please share in the comments. I also welcome any and all comments and discussion. Thanks for reading!

1870: First African American to vote in an election under the 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting voting rights regardless of race: Thomas Mundy Peterson

From Wikipedia:

Thomas Mundy Peterson (October 6, 1824 – February 4, 1904) of Perth Amboy, New Jersey was the first African-American to vote in an election under the just-enacted provisions of the 15th Amendment to the United States Constitution. His vote was cast on March 31, 1870.

He was born in Metuchen, New Jersey. His father, also named Thomas, worked for the Mundy family. It is unclear if he was a slave of the family or not. His mother, Lucy Green, was a slave of Hugh Newell (1744-1816) of Freehold Township, New Jersey. She was manumitted at age 21 by Newell’s will.

He was a school custodian and general handyman in Perth Amboy. Active in the Republican Party, he became the city’s first African-American to hold elected office, on the Middlesex County Commission.[3] He was also the city’s first “colored” person to serve on a jury.

Peterson voted in a local election held in Perth Amboy, NJ over the town’s charter. Some citizens wanted to revise the existing charter while others wished to abandon the charter altogether in favor of a township form of government. Peterson cast his ballot in favor of revising the existing charter. This side won 230 to 63.[4] Peterson was afterward appointed to be a member of the committee of seven that made the revisions.[5] Historical records as to his contribution to revisions in the form of minutes, writing, or other records are still wanting.

To honor Thomas Mundy Peterson as the first African-American voter after the passage of the 15th Amendment, the citizens of Perth Amboy raised $70 (over $1,000 in 2010 dollars) to award him with a gold medallion. The full medallion consists of a gold bar from which a two inch diameter medallion was hung. The hanging medallion featured a profile bust of a clean-shaven Abraham Lincoln. It was presented to Thomas Mundy Peterson on Memorial Day, which was then called Decoration Day, May 30, 1884. He is said to have loved the medal and never considered himself properly dressed without it affixed to his left breast. Later in life financial instability forced Peterson to sometimes pawn the medallion. It is currently housed at the historically African-American Xavier University of Louisiana.

The medallion awarded to Thomas Mundy Peterson by the citizens of Perth Amboy in 1884.

The medallion awarded to Thomas Mundy Peterson by the citizens of Perth Amboy in 1884.

~*~

This is a very meaningful first for me. There are things we 21st century Americans take for granted. Voting is definitely one of them. I know Audrey Lorde said that we can’t bring down the oppressors with their own tools, but if we remain effectively silent and refuse to participate then the oppressors truly do have ALL the power instead of just a good portion of it. Voting by itself is not enough of course, but it is definitely a part of the multi-pronged approach to increasing the fairness in our society.

Black History 365 – First African-American woman school principal

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Fanny Jackson Coppin

Fanny Jackson Coppin

 

In 2016 for my Black History 365 series, I explore the obvious and not so obvious parts of American history that those called Black have taken part in. The things that we (Black people) have done other than be stolen from our homeland and made forced labor in a land foreign to us. I’m going to start this series by looking up the first time someone African-American did something and broke the color barrier in that activity or field. I’ll be starting with Wikipedia and working my way out:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_African-American_firsts

I will be learning a lot of this as I go since I am a product of the standardized Euro/Anglo/Caucasian leaning public school system. I hope you enjoy learning with me. I’ll be going down the list chronologically as it appears in the Wikipedia article.

If you have any other sources or additional information for this topic, please share in the comments. I also welcome any and all comments and discussion. Thanks for reading!

For today’s entry:

1869: First African-American woman school principal: Fanny Jackson Coppin (Institute for Colored Youth)

From Wikipedia:

Fanny Jackson Coppin (January 8, 1837 – January 21, 1913) was an African-American educator and missionary and a lifelong advocate for female higher education.

Born an American slave, Fanny Jackson’s freedom was purchased by her aunt at age 12. Fanny Jackson spent the rest of her youth working as a servant for author George Henry Calvert, studying at every opportunity. In 1860, she enrolled in Oberlin College in Ohio, the first college in the United States to accept both black and female students. She writes in her autobiography:

“The faculty did not forbid a woman to take the gentleman’s course, but they did not advise it. There was plenty of Latin and Greek in it, and as much mathematics as one could shoulder. Now, I took a long breath and prepared for a delightful contest. All went smoothly until I was in the junior year in College. Then, one day, the Faculty sent for me–ominous request–and I was not slow in obeying it. It was a custom in Oberlin that forty students from the junior and senior classes were employed to teach the preparatory classes. As it was now time for the juniors to begin their work, the Faculty informed me that it was their purpose to give me a class, but I was to distinctly understand that if the pupils rebelled against my teaching, they did not intend to force it. Fortunately for my training at the normal school, and my own dear love of teaching, tho there was a little surprise on the faces of some when they came into the class, and saw the teacher, there were no signs of rebellion. The class went on increasing in numbers until it had to be divided, and I was given both divisions. One of the divisions ran up again, but the Faculty decided that I had as much as I could do, and it would not allow me to take any more work.”

~~~~~~~~~~

References

  1. Perkins, Linda M. “Heed life’s demands: The educational philosophy of Fanny Jackson Coppin”. Journal of Negro Education (1982): 181-190.
  2. Perkins, Linda Marie. Fanny Jackson Coppin and the Institute for Colored Youth, 1865-1902. Vol. 9. Garland, 1987
  3. Reminisces of School Life, Hints on Teaching, Philadelphia, PA 1913
  4. History of Coppin State University

External links

Black History 365 – First college owned and operated by African Americans

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First college owned and operated by African Americans: Wilberforce University in Ohio

First college owned and operated by African Americans: Wilberforce University in Ohio

In 2016 for my Black History 365 series, I explore the obvious and not so obvious parts of American history that those called Black have taken part in. The things that we (Black people) have done other than be stolen from our homeland and made forced labor in a land foreign to us. I’m going to start this series by looking up the first time someone African-American did something and broke the color barrier in that activity or field. I’ll be starting with Wikipedia and working my way out:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_African-American_firsts

I will be learning a lot of this as I go since I am a product of the standardized Euro/Anglo/Caucasian leaning public school system. I hope you enjoy learning with me. I’ll be going down the list chronologically as it appears in the Wikipedia article.

If you have any other sources or additional information for this topic, please share in the comments. I also welcome any and all comments and discussion. Thanks for reading!

For today’s entry:

1863: First college owned and operated by African Americans: Wilberforce University in Ohio

From Wikipedia:

Wilberforce University is a private, coed, liberal arts historically black university (HBCU) located in Wilberforce, Ohio. Affiliated with the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church, it was the first college to be owned and operated by African Americans. It participates in the United Negro College Fund.

The founding of the college was unique as a collaboration in 1856 by the Cincinnati, Ohio Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church and the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME). They planned a college to provide classical education and teacher training for black youth. Leaders of both races made up the first board members.

When the number of students fell due to the American Civil War and financial losses closed the college in 1863, the AME Church purchased the institution to ensure its survival. Its first president, AME Bishop Daniel A. Payne, was one of the original founders. Prominent supporters and the US government donated funds for rebuilding after a fire in 1865. When the college added an industrial department in the late 19th century, state legislators could sponsor scholarship students.

The college attracted the top professors of the day, including W. E. B. Du Bois. In the 19th century, it enlarged its mission to include students from South Africa. The university supports the national Association of African American Museums to broaden the reach of its programs and assist smaller museums with professional standards.

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Wikipedia References

  1. Jump up^ Staff (2009-03-13). “National Register Information System”. National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  2. Jump up^ “Wilberforce University: Yesterday and Today”. Wiberforce University. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
  3. Jump up^ “NASA Education Facility Opens at Wilberforce University”. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Archived from the original on November 16, 2006. Retrieved January 1, 2007.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b Campbell (1995), Songs of Zion, p. 263
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b Talbert, Horace (2000). “The Sons of Allen: Together with a Sketch of the Rise and Progress of Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio 1906”.Documenting the South. University of North Carolina. pp. 264–265, 273. RetrievedJuly 25, 2008.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h James T. Campbell, Songs of Zion, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 259–260, accessed Jan 13, 2009
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Talbert (1906), Sons of Allen, p. 267
  8. Jump up^ Horace Talbert, The Sons of Allen: Together with a Sketch of the Rise and Progress of Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio, 1906, p. 273,Documenting the South, 2000, University of North Carolina, accessed Jul 25, 2008
  9. Jump up^ “Wilberforce University’s Administration of the Title IV, Higher Education Act Programs: Final Audit Report” (PDF).
  10. Jump up^ “Library”. Wilberforce University. Retrieved March 24, 2010.
  11. Jump up^ http://blog.al.com/wire/2013/09/rep_demetrius_newton_first_bla.html
  12. Jump up^ “Golf Pioneer Dies”. Morning Journal News. Jan 2, 2010.
  13. Jump up^ O’Neal Parker, Lonnae. “A tender spot in master-slave relations”. Washington Post. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  14. Jump up^ Nelson, Samantha. “Dolen Perkins-Valdez: Wench”. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  15. Jump up^ “Black Caucus of the American Library Association Literary Awards (1994–Present)”. Infoplease. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  16. Jump up^ Perkins-Vadez, Dolen (2010). Wench. Amistad. ASIN B004NE8RZ4.

External links:

Black History 365 – First African-American captain to sail a whaleship with an all-black crew

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1822, First African-American captain to sail a whaleship with an all-black crew: Absalom Boston

1822, First African-American captain to sail a whaleship with an all-black crew: Absalom Boston

In 2016 for my Black History 365 series, I explore the obvious and not so obvious parts of American history that those called Black have taken part in. The things that we (Black people) have done other than be stolen from our homeland and made forced labor in a land foreign to us. I’m going to start this series by looking up the first time someone African-American did something and broke the color barrier in that activity or field. I’ll be starting with Wikipedia and working my way out:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_African-American_firsts

I will be learning a lot of this as I go since I am a product of the standardized Euro/Anglo/Caucasian leaning public school system. I hope you enjoy learning with me. I’ll be going down the list chronologically as it appears in the Wikipedia article.

If you have any other sources or additional information for this topic, please share in the comments. I also welcome any and all comments and discussion. Thanks for reading!

For today’s entry:

1822: First African-American captain to sail a whale ship with an all-black crew: Absalom Boston

From Wikipedia:

Absalom Boston was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, to Seneca Boston, an African-American ex-slave father, and Thankful Micah, a Wampanoag Indian mother. His grandfather or possibly uncle, a slave named Prince Boston, was part of the crew of a 1770 whaling voyage, but refused to turn over his earnings to his white master. Instead, he went to court and won both his earnings and freedom, making him the first black slave to win his freedom in a U.S. jury trial.

Boston spent his early years working in the whaling industry. By the time he reached 20, he acquired enough money to purchase property in Nantucket. Ten years later, he obtained a license to open and operate a public inn.

In 1822, Boston became the captain of The Industry, a whaleship manned entirely with an African-American crew. The six-month journey returned with 70 barrels of whale oil and the entire crew intact.

Boston retired from the sea after The Industry returned to Nantucket from its historic voyage. He concentrated on becoming a business and community leader, and also ran for public office. Together with fellow captain, Edward Pompey, he led the Nantucket abolitionist movement. He was also a founding trustee of Nantucket’s African Baptist Society, and the African Meeting House in Nantucket. In 1845, after his daughter Phebe Ann Boston was barred from attending a public school, he successfully brought a lawsuit against the Nantucket municipal government to integrate the public education system.

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Robert Gambee and Elizabeth Heard (2001). Nantucket Impressions. Robert Gambee. pp. 206–207. ISBN 0-393-01010-4. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Johnson, Robert (Spring 2002). “Black-White Relations on Nantucket”. Historic Nantucket. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c Bill Delahunt, remarks made during “The Role of Civil Rights Organizations in History”, February 11, 1997, Congressional Record Volume 143, U.S. Government Printing Office.
  4. Jump up^ Finkelman, P. (2006). Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619-1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass Three-volume Set. Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 1–417. ISBN 9780195167771. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b “Whaling Museum and Peter Foulger Museum”. Museum of African American History. Retrieved 2009-11-23.